Explain Common Law and Equity Systems of Law

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In modern practice, the biggest difference between law and justice is the remedies that everyone offers. In civil proceedings, the court will award financial damages, but equity has been built up if the pecuniary damages could not adequately meet the loss. For example, if someone infringes one of your trademarks, you can get financial damages for the loss, but your business could be ruined if it continues. Fairness is the additional solution that allows a court to tell another person to stop, including through an injunction. In cases involving disputes over land ownership and use rights, it is customary for the judge to order the restitution of such property or negotiate a settlement of disputes. The distinction arose in England, where there were separate courts and tribunals. Following this model, some U.S. states have created chancery courts that deal only with facilitation. In other states, common law courts had the power to exercise equitable jurisdiction.

Today, courts separate from the registry have largely been abolished because the same court that can appeal has the power to order a fair court. Litigants would engage in “jurisdictional shopping” and would often seek a fair injunction prohibiting the enforcement of a common law court order. The penalty for disobeying a fair order and carrying out an unscrupulous judgment of the common law was imprisonment. [17] Fairness has developed because of the shortcomings of the common law. Only certain types of cases were recognized. People who could not get justice in the common law courts went directly to the king. Most of these cases were referred to the king`s chancellor, who was both a lawyer and a priest and became known as the “guardian of the king`s conscience.” Indeed, it is the Lord Chancellor`s duty “to establish the truth and ensure justice without excessive respect for technical details and procedures. Berry v.

Berry An act was considered to have been modified by a simple contract. According to common law rules, a document can only be modified by another document. But fairness decided that, since the parties had intended to amend the act, it would be fair to consider that intention rather than the fact that they erred in the formalities. Since the terms common law and equity represent two branches or modes of law that were not created by law, we should know the difference between common law and equity. The common law refers to precedents or statutes created by court decisions. Justice, on the other hand, is linked to the principles of equity and equality. While there is a tendency to use the two terms interchangeably, there are differences between the two, which are explained in more detail below. This allows Equitable to create new remedies if the plaintiff would otherwise not have an adequate remedy for the matter and could only seek the common law remedy for damages. This maxim allows Equity to continue to develop new remedies as needed, such as freeze orders and search warrants. Another difference is that the judge is the sole decision-maker in matters of justice. In the United States today, federal courts and most state courts have consolidated common law and equity law into a single court of general jurisdiction.

The courts of justice were very questionable when they existed, because many people were suspicious of this obscure judicial rule. In general, the law of equity violates the institution of law because it is unpredictable because it is based on previous precedents. Equity is often seen as the second branch of English law that emerged after the introduction of the common law. In medieval England, parties aggrieved by a court decision asked the king to do justice with regard to the severe punishment. The King, in turn, relied on the advice of the Lord Chancellor in response to these petitions and complaints, who investigated the dispute and attempted to achieve a “fair” result against rigid common law principles. The role of the Lord Chancellor in the administration of justice was then transferred to a separate court called the Court of Chancery. Fairness was developed to mitigate the harshness and rigidity of the common law rules of the time, or the rigid interpretations of those rules by the courts. A number of general principles have been developed and these general principles are commonly referred to as maxims of justice.

Here are some of these maxims: Another difference is the unavailability of a jury in court: the judge is the trier of fact. In the U.S. legal system, the right to a jury trial in civil cases heard in federal court is guaranteed by the Seventh Amendment in common law trials, cases that would have traditionally been dealt with by the courts. Whether a case should be decided by a jury depends largely on the type of relief sought by the plaintiff. If a plaintiff seeks damages in the form of money or certain other forms of reparation, such as restitution of a particular property, the remedy is considered legal and a jury is available to establish the facts. On the other hand, if the plaintiff seeks injunctive relief, declaratory judgment, special performance, contract modification, or other non-monetary relief, the claim would generally be a claim for equity. In jurisdictions that follow the English common law system, equity is the legal interest developed in the English Court of Chancery and now administered at the same time as the common law. [3] In common law jurisdictions, the word “justice” is “not synonymous with `general fairness` or `natural justice`”, but refers to “a particular set of rules derived from a particular judicial system”. [4] One criticism of the practice of the Chancellery as it developed in the early Middle Ages was that it lacked firm rules and that the Lord Chancellor exercised unlimited discretion.